1) Soils along the catena studied showed minimal variations in their morphological, physical and chemical properties. This has important ecological implications as it tends to not support the idea that high soil spatial variability at short distances in rain forest ecosystems is a major factor for its high biodiversity.
3) The nature of the basalt parent rock and the climatic condition prevailing in the area as well as its relief appear to be the dominant factors affecting the development of the soils.
Navarrete IA, K Tsutsuki, VB Asio, R Kondo. 2009. Characteristics and formation of rain forest soils derived from late Quaternary basaltic rocks in Leyte, Philippines. Environmental Geology 58: 1257-1268.